**Data Structures and Algorithm**

- Data structure is a way of organizing all data items and establishing relationship among those data items. - Data structures are the building blocks of a program. Data structure mainly specifies the following four things: • Organization of data. • Accessing methods • Degree of associativity • Processing alternatives for information To develop a program of an algorithm, we should select an appropriate data structure for that algorithm. Therefore algorithm and its associated data structures form a program. Algorithm + Data structure = Program A static data structure is one whose capacity is fixed at creation. For example, array. A dynamic data structure is one whose capacity is variable, so it can expand or contract at any time. For example, linked list, binary tree etc.

Read More**Computer Architecture**

Number System Number of digits used in a number system is called its base or radix. We can categorize number system as below: - Binary number system - Octal Number System - Decimal Number System - Hexadecimal Number system Representation of Decimal numbers We can normally represent decimal numbers in one of following two ways - By converting into binary - By using BCD codes By converting into binary Advantage Arithmetic and logical calculation becomes easy. Negative numbers can be represented easily. Disadvantage At the time of input conversion from decimal to binary is needed and at the time of output conversion from binary to decimal is needed. Therefore this approach is useful in the systems where there is much calculation than input/output.

Read More**Computer Graphics**

Computer graphics is concerned with producing images and animations (or sequences of images) using a computer. This includes the hardware and software systems used to make these images. The task of producing photo-realistic images is an extremely complex one, but this is a field that is in great demand because of the nearly limitless variety of applications. The field of computer graphics has grown enormously over the past 10–20 years, and many software systems have been developed for generating computer graphics of various sorts. This can include systems for producing 3-dimensional models of the scene to be drawn, the rendering software for drawing the images, and the associated user-interface software and hardware. Our focus in this course will not be on how to use these systems to produce these images (you can take courses in the art department for this), but rather in understanding how these systems are constructed, and the underlying mathematics, physics, algorithms, and data structures needed in the construction of these systems. The field of computer graphics dates back to the early 1960’s with Ivan Sutherland, one of the pioneers of the field. This began with the development of the (by current standards) very simple software for performing the necessary mathematical transformations to produce simple line-drawings of 2- and 3-dimensional scenes. As time went on, and the capacity and speed of computer technology improved, successively greater degrees of realism were achievable. Today it is possible to produce images that are practically indistinguishable from photographic images (or at least that create a pretty convincing illusion of reality).

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